A recent study from consulting firm AlixPartners has suggested that automakers could be in for a financial ass kicking of epic proportions. As it turns out, reaching emission quotas is a difficult business and the European Union wants 95 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer by 2021. The study suggests few automakers are on track to reach that goal and, as a result, will be forced to pay out sizable fines. We’re talking billions. Here’s a hint: we’ve discussed one of them having similar issues in the United States earlier this year and both of their names are in the title of this article.  In February, we reported that FCA paid $77 million in U.S. civil penalties due to its failure to adhere to 2016 model year fuel economy requirements and would likely be on the hook for steeper penalties in the years to come. Volkswagen’s storied history with air pollution has been covered to death. After being caught cheating on emissions tests in 2015, and being on the receiving end of huge fines, the German company has shifted aggressively toward electrification. According to Reuters, AlixPartners is forecasting that Europe’s stiffer penalties could result in VW facing fines of up to 1....